This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical calendars are often grouped into larger categories by cultural sphere or historical period; thus O’Neil distinguishes the groupings Egyptian calendars Ancient Egypt , Babylonian calendars Ancient Mesopotamia , Indian calendars Hindu and Buddhist traditions of the Indian subcontinent , Chinese calendars and Mesoamerican calendars. These are not specific calendars but series of historical calendars undergoing reforms or regional diversification. Many modern calendar proposals, including the Gregorian calendar itself, are in turn modifications of the Julian calendar. In the list below, specific calendars are given, listed by calendar type solar, lunisolar or lunar , time of introduction if known , and the context of use and cultural or historical grouping if applicable.
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Anno Lucis is a dating system used in Masonic ceremonial or commemorative proceedings, which is equivalent to the Gregorian year plus It is similar to.
It was the first year of the Common Era CE , of the 1st millennium and of the 1st century. It was a common year starting on Saturday or Sunday , [note 1] a common year starting on Saturday by the proleptic Julian calendar , and a common year starting on Monday by the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The denomination “AD 1” for this year has been in consistent use since the mid- medieval period when the anno Domini AD calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
The preceding year is 1 BC ; there is no year 0 in this numbering scheme. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see AD 1 disambiguation and 1AD.
A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated.
The isochron dating method attempts to combat the zero date problem by using ratios of isotopes and samples of different minerals from the same rock. Others disagree and say that studies in theoretical physics suggest accelerated nuclear decay can occur e. Amount of salt in the sea img. See Lalomov, Earth age dating methods wiki. For paleomagnetic dating, it is suggested to use the APWP in order to date a pole obtained from rocks or sediments of unknown age by linking the paleopole to the nearest point on the APWP.
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Boltwood focused on the end products of decay series. Boltwood’s paper pointed out that samples taken from comparable layers of strata had similar lead-to-uranium ratios, and that samples from older layers Earth age dating methods wiki a higher proportion of lead, except where there was evidence that lead had leached out of the sample.
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Adoption of the Gregorian calendar
The adoption of the Gregorian Calendar was an event in the modern history of most cultures and societies, marking a change from their traditional or old style dating system to the modern or new style dating system that is widely used around the world today. Some states adopted the new calendar from , some did not do so before the early twentieth century, and others did so at various dates between; however a number continue to use a different civil calendar.
For many the new style calendar is only used for civil purposes and the old style calendar remains used in religious contexts.
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In Thailand , two main calendar systems are used alongside each other: the Thai solar calendar , based on the Gregorian calendar , used for official and most day-to-day purposes, and the Thai lunar calendar a version of the Buddhist calendar , technically a lunisolar calendar , used for traditional events and Buddhist religious practices.
The use of the solar calendar was introduced in by King Chulalongkorn Rama V , replacing the lunar calendar in official contexts. Originally placing the beginning of year on 1 April, this was changed to 1 January in , so the days and months now correspond exactly to the Gregorian calendar. Numbering of the years follow the Buddhist Era , introduced in to replace the Rattanakosin Era, which in turn replaced the Chula Sakarat in The lunar calendar contains 12 or 13 months in a year, with 15 waxing moon and 14 or 15 waning moon days in a month, amounting to years of , or days.
The years are usually noted by the animal of the Chinese zodiac , although there are several dates used to count the New Year. As with the rest of the world, the seven-day week is used alongside both calendars. The solar calendar now governs most aspects of life in Thailand, and while official state documents invariably follow the Buddhist Era, the Common Era is also used by the private sector.
The lunar calendar determines the dates of Buddhist holidays, traditional festivals and astrological practices, and the lunar date is still recorded on birth certificates and printed in most daily newspapers. Thai birth certificates record the date, month and time of birth, followed by the day of the week, lunar date, and the applicable zodiac animal name. Thai traditionally reckon age by the year animal-cycle names , with the twelfth and sixtieth anniversaries being of special significance; but the official calendar determines age at law.
For instance, 12 August was observed without regard to the lunar date as Queen Sirikit ‘s birthday, a public holiday also observed as Thai Mother’s Day. Her zodiacal animal is the Monkey and her traditionally significant sixtieth anniversary year was
It is similar to Anno Mundi. After the Masoretic text was published, dating creation around BC became common, and it was received with wide support. Among the Masoretic creation estimates or calculations for the date of creation, Archbishop Ussher’s specific chronology dating the creation to BC became the most accepted and popular in Christendom, mainly because this specific date was attached to the King James Bible.
This is a list of calendars. Included are historical calendars as well as proposed ones. Historical Universal Time and ISO week date, a leap week calendar system used with the Gregorian calendar; Fiscal year varies with different countries.
Forgive me if this topic has been broached before; I scanned the archived discussion pages briefly and saw no mention of it. Shouldn’t the standard nomenclature for designating the era of a year be updated to make it non-specific about religion? I see that this might be considered revisionism by some since the numbers would, in fact, still be based around the same event, but of course it’s really just a matter of convenience to keep them.
It’s important for the western world, if it’s going to enforce its dating system on everyone else anyway, not to enforce its religious trapments as well. Most serious scholars, particularly those who completed their formative years recently relative to the grayer-haired ones who might or might not be stubborn about keeping things the old way, have adapted to the secular style. I’m surprised Wikipedia hasn’t done so as well, given the general standard of objectivity and compromise between all points of view even non-christian ones!
Aratuk , 26 Feb UTC. I changed the section on years to allow dates BCE. AD and CE are allowed but only recommended for ranges of dates that span the epoch. Gdr , Jul 5 UTC. While not as well known among the general public especially outside the USA , the ” Common Era ” nomenclature has basically become the international standard in academic circles. Detractors argue that it’s simply Political Correctness , an annoying Americanism, or a fad. The debate is also mentioned in the article for Anno Domini as well, in the section entitled “Alternative nomenclature for the same era”.
Cesare Emiliani’s proposal for a calendar reform sought to solve a number of alleged problems with the current Anno Domini era, which number the years of the commonly accepted world calendar. These issues include:. The motivation for this is that human civilization e.
Systems. A full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day. Thus the week cycle is by itself not a full calendar system;.
A proposal to change Wikipedia policy on the format for presenting calendar years resulted in an apparent stalemate last week, ultimately leaving the status quo apparently unchanged despite lengthy and sometimes heated debate. The basic suggestion was to adopt a style guideline that when identifying years, using BC and AD “represent a Christian Point of View and should be used only when they are appropriate, that is, in the context of expressing or providing an account of a Christian point of view.
The main policy proposal was formulated primarily by Slrubenstein as a potential addition to the Neutral point of view policy. The broader proposal grew out of a debate on Talk:Jesus about how to handle the problem of dates there. Many of the basic arguments had already been raised in that discussion, along with points specific to the Jesus article. As implied by its presentation, the primary argument made for changing the policy was that the literal meanings of the abbreviations BC “Before Christ” and AD “Anno Domini” were ultimately not neutral.
Silversmith cited an email she had received from the Encyclopedia Britannica explaining their policy. It stated, “Britannica uses the BC-AD method of designating centuries because it is the most commonly accepted and widely used system for most of the world”, noting a few special circumstances where exceptions are made Encarta uses BC and AD as well. Rapid editing during the discussion produced some edit conflicts and a few flare-ups over how the page was maintained, while the debate also extended to the mailing list.
By contrast, a similar poll on Talk:Jesus had the majority running the other way. An alternative technical solution of allowing different dating systems to be displayed according to user preferences was also brought up, and later even voted on in a separate poll.
Date and time notation in Thailand
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A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of.
An epoch , for the purposes of chronology and periodization , is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era. The “epoch” serves as a reference point from which time is measured. The moment of epoch is usually decided by congruity, or by following conventions understood from the epoch in question. The epoch moment or date is usually defined from a specific, clear event of change, an epoch event. In a more gradual change, a deciding moment is chosen when the epoch criterion was reached.
The official Japanese system numbers years from the accession of the current emperor , regarding the calendar year during which the accession occurred as the first year.
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In the scientific Before Present system of numbering years for purposes of radiocarbon dating, the reference date is January 1, (though the use of January.
Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems. At present, Japan uses the Gregorian calendar together with year designations stating the year of the reign of the current Emperor. The lunisolar Chinese calendar was introduced to Japan via Korea in the middle of the sixth century. After that, Japan calculated its calendar using various Chinese calendar procedures, and from , using Japanese variations of the Chinese procedures. But in , as part of Japan’s Meiji period modernization, a calendar based on the solar Gregorian calendar was introduced.
Japan has had more than one system for designating years. Years are numbered within regnal eras , which are named by the reigning Emperor. Beginning with Meiji — , each reign has been one era, but many earlier Emperors decreed a new era upon any major event; the last pre-Meiji Emperor’s reign — was split into seven eras, one of which lasted only one year. The Japanese naval Zero Fighter was named after this year.
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However, in practice, there are some variations. Thailand mainly uses the Buddhist calendar which is years ahead of the Gregorian calendar. There are two systems of telling time in Thailand. Official time follows a hour clock. The hour clock is commonly used in military, aviation, navigation, meteorology, astronomy, computing, logistical, emergency services, and hospital settings, where the ambiguities of the hour clock cannot be tolerated.
The year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini (AD) system commonly used to number years ISO (and previously ISO , but not ISO ) explicitly uses astronomical year numbering in its date reference systems.
The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means “in the year of the Lord”,  but is often presented using “our Lord” instead of “the Lord”,   taken from the full original phrase ” anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi “, which translates to “in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ”. This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth , with AD counting years from the start of this epoch , and BC denoting years before the start of the era.
This dating system was devised in by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. For decades, it has been the unofficial global standard, adopted in the pragmatic interests of international communication, transportation, and commercial integration, and recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations.
Traditionally, English followed Latin usage by placing the “AD” abbreviation before the year number. The abbreviation is also widely used after the number of a century or millennium , as in “fourth century AD” or “second millennium AD” although conservative usage formerly rejected such expressions. However, this would mean that the approximate 33 years commonly associated with the life of Jesus would be included in neither the BC nor the AD time scales.
Astronomical year numbering and ISO avoid words or abbreviations related to Christianity, but use the same numbers for AD years. The Anno Domini dating system was devised in by Dionysius Exiguus to enumerate the years in his Easter table. His system was to replace the Diocletian era that had been used in an old Easter table because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians.
When he devised his table, Julian calendar years were identified by naming the consuls who held office that year—he himself stated that the “present year” was “the consulship of Probus Junior “, which was years “since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ”. Bonnie J. Among the sources of confusion are: .